The project has been designed with interrelated work packages (WP) to address the requirements of the FP7 call. The concept is to develop a matrix consisting of the 8 targeted neglected zoonoses on the one hand and on the other hand the broader requirements of gap analysis, development of control strategies, analysis of burdens, technology transfer and communications. Each of a number of work packages will handle a broad generic concept within which each of the 8 diseases will be covered.
- WP1 MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION
- WP2 MAPPING GLOBAL RESEARCH ON NEGLECTED ZOONOSES
- WP3 KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION ON NEGLECTED ZOONOSES
- WP4 IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF DISEASE CONTROL TOOLS
- WPS5-8 INTEGRATED INTERVENTION PACKAGES FOR CLUSTERS OF NEGLECTED ZOONOSES
- WP9 SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS
- WP10 CULTURAL ASPECTS, GENDER ISSUES, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND MESSAGING
- WP11 CAPACITY BUILDING THROUGH TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND TRAINING
- WP12 COMMUNICATION AND DISSEMINATION
WP1 MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION
The main objective of this work package is:
- To ensure the effective management of the project so that it meets its objectives.
This WP has been designed to provide management necessary to ensure effective integration and coordination of the collaboration. The nature of this proposal with a wide range of participants places a strong emphasis on stakeholder input and horizontal interactions with other groups involved in research, development and delivery of new tools and strategies.
WP2 MAPPING GLOBAL RESEARCH ON NEGLECTED ZOONOSES
The main objectives of this work package are:
- To provide a clear picture of current research into diagnosis, burdens and control of neglected zoonoses.
- To identify significant research gaps in the above areas.
- To encourage networking among all key researchers on the neglected zoonoses targeted in this call.
It is important to develop this overview of the situation with respect to the neglected zoonoses (NZ) to ensure resources are correctly focused and duplication of effort avoided. It is equally important to ensure that networking is developed particularly to include researchers in the developing international cooperation partner countries (ICPCs).
The Neglected Zoonoses Research Projects Database can be found at: http://www.zoonosis.ac.uk/iconz
WP3 KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION ON NEGLECTED ZOONOSES
One of the problems with the neglected zoonoses is the presence of gaps in current knowledge about many aspects of each disease. This is especially true when attempting to assess the burdens of the diseases. Surveillance for these diseases is important in determining the prevalence and distribution to evaluate the burdens they impose on individuals, groups and countries. The objectives of this work package are:
- To provide essential epidemiological and sociological information on each of the neglected zoonoses.
- To develop a standardized and accepted methodology for quantifying the burdens and costs of neglected zoonoses.
- To utilize these methodologies to quantify the overall burden of neglected zoonoses targeted in the call in humans and animals.
WP4 IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF DISEASE CONTROL TOOLS
In order to meet the objectives of this work package the effectiveness and availability of existing tools for the control of neglected zoonoses will be assessed. A range of tools are available but new technologies should enable the development of new and more effective tools. Any new or improved tools must be validated and demonstrated to the authorities who will ultimately use these tools for the control of neglected zoonoses. The work package has the following objectives:
- To identify currently available tools in relation to diagnosis, vaccination, treatment and policy for each of the neglected zoonoses listed in the call.
- To provide a detailed assessment of gaps in the disease control tools available.
- To facilitate the development of new and improved tools.
- To demonstrate the scientific validity of control tools for neglected zoonoses.
WPS5-8 INTEGRATED INTERVENTION PACKAGES FOR CLUSTERS OF NEGLECTED ZOONOSES
It is imperative to develop control and prevention strategies which are effective and appropriate for the country and communities concerned. As stated in the Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and Biotechnology Work Programme, “a major impact is expected by tackling these zoonoses as a group”. Hence the emphasis of ICONZ will be on control and prevention through integrated ‘packages’ of interventions targeted at groups or ‘clusters’ of related neglected zoonoses. The clusters of neglected zoonoses to be addressed by ICONZ in specific categories of animals or animal production systems are:
- WP5 INTEGRATED INTERVENTION PACKAGES FOR NEGLECTED BACTERIAL ZOONOSES (Anthrax, bovine TB and brucellosis are all bacterial diseases for which vaccination of man and/or animals represents an important control strategy),
- WP6 INTEGRATED INTERVENTION PACKAGES FOR DOG / SMALL RUMINANT-ASSOCIATED NEGLECTED ZOONOSES (includes echinococcosis, leishmaniasis and rabies, which frequently occur together, particularly in pastoralist communities),
- WP7 INTEGRATED INTERVENTION PACKAGES FOR NEGLECTED PIG-ASSOCIATED ZOONOSES (porcine cysticercosis, neurocysticercosis and taeniasis) and
- WP8 INTEGRATED INTERVENTION PACKAGES FOR NEGLECTED VECTOR-BORNE ZOONOSES (zoonotic trypanosomiasis, tick-borne animal diseases and malaria [in some areas]. The control of African bovine trypanosomiasis, and specifically zoonotic sleeping sickness, through insecticide application to cattle has been shown to be effective. The synthetic pyrethroid (SP) insecticides used for this purpose also have a marked effect on cattle ticks and tick-borne diseases. The more obvious effect of SPs on cattle ticks may represent a strong incentive for the adoption of this intervention technology, with multiple benefits accruing in terms of animal and human health.).
The objectives for these four work packages are generically:
- To improve and develop prevention and control strategies for clusters of neglected zoonoses in endemic developing countries of Africa, taking into account economic, sociological and cultural aspects related to the diseases as well as traditional knowledge.
- To develop cost-effective disease control strategies for clusters of neglected zoonoses.
- To develop integrated disease control packages for clusters of neglected zoonoses.
- To provide information for incorporation under WP11 into materials to be used in training and capacity building activities.
- To provide information for advocacy, and strategic options for control and prevention of neglected zoonoses to be disseminated under WP12 to governments, technical assistance agencies (e.g. FAO, WHO, etc) and donor bodies.
Two further work packages will provide overarching support measures on socioeconomic and institutional aspects (WP9) and cultural aspects, gender issues, traditional knowledge and messaging (WP10) in the control of neglected zoonoses in complementarity to WP5–8.
WP9 SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS
The control and prevention strategies must be demonstrated to be cost effective having assessed the various control options. Intersectoral institutional collaboration is important here since control costs in animals accrue benefits in both human and animal health. The objectives for this work package are:
- To collect existing information and data on the cost-effectiveness of various control strategies for each of the neglected zoonoses under consideration by ICONZ.
- To set up activities with ICPC participants in ICONZ to fill knowledge gaps on cost-effectiveness of control strategies for neglected zoonoses.
- To analyze the cost-effectiveness of integrated intervention packages being tested and validated under WPs 5-8 for each of the neglected zoonoses clusters.
- To formulate recommendations as to appropriate medical/veterinary structures, liaison and cost-sharing for the effective control of neglected zoonoses.
- To provide overarching support to other WPs, especially WPs5–8 and WP10, in socio-economic and institutional matters.
- To harmonize with WP3 and WPs5-10 in providing training materials to be taken up by WP11 and to provide information for advocacy to be disseminated by WP12.
WP10 CULTURAL ASPECTS, GENDER ISSUES, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND MESSAGING
ICONZ will develop control and prevention strategies taking into account economic, sociological and cultural aspects related to the diseases as well as traditional knowledge, in accordance with the Work Programme. Accordingly, the attribution of a major role to women, both in the veterinary profession as well as in the populations concerned, will be sought and a major impact is expected by giving a major role to women who in many cases will be instrumental in implementing local control programmes.
Successful control of neglected zoonoses depends on affected communities being aware of risk factors and how these are intimately interwoven with their relationship with companion animals, livestock and wildlife. Because of this, effective messaging is a control tool of overriding importance as acknowledged by its special status within this work package. Within affected communities, women play a key role in educating families and implementing risk avoidance strategies and are in the front line of disease control; hence gender issues are a key component. An important aspect will be confounding of perceptions of neglected zoonoses and other diseases (e.g. febrile conditions such as malaria, brucellosis and sleeping sickness with overlapping symptomatologies). Health seeking behaviour is largely culturally determined and integrated control approaches will have to analyze carefully those societal determinants to identify new innovative avenues of individual, household and community action. The objectives for this work package are:
- To establish current knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to the presence, transmission factors, impact, and control of neglected zoonoses in the case-study area.
- To characterize and facilitate the role of women in relation to the control of neglected diseases, not just as direct beneficiaries from improved livestock and human health, but also in terms of their key role in the success of local control programmes.
- To review existing messaging tools in all media that are used to support disease control activities for the neglected disease clusters addressed by ICONZ.
- To identify appropriate tools and channels to reach target communities and affect health behaviour and environmental factors.
- To create health messaging tool kits for strategic scenario-diagnosis, planning and targeting and monitoring of public health interventions, including a central repository for field-tested messaging material.
- To provide overarching support to other WPs, especially WPs5–8 and WP9, on gender issues, use of appropriate messaging and adaptation of control strategies to local cultural contexts.
WP11 CAPACITY BUILDING THROUGH TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND TRAINING
The project will also provide technology transfer and training to affected countries. These requirements can only be met through coordinated stakeholder engagement at all levels from the inception of the project. Without effective technology transfer the project outputs will not be sustainable. The objectives of this work package are:
- To build diagnostic, prevention and control capacity for neglected zoonoses in targeted African countries.
- To train individual scientists, medics, veterinarians and other appropriate personnel within the human health and livestock production sectors in diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention and control of neglected zoonoses.
- To provide training packages on prevention and control of neglected zoonoses at community level to medical, veterinary and agricultural personnel as well as community leaders, livestock keepers and householders, with particular regard to the importance of the role of women.
WP12 COMMUNICATION AND DISSEMINATION
The involvement of all the stakeholders is vital to the success of the project. Transferring the outcomes of ICONZ to stakeholders and in particular those with responsibility for developing and implementing control and prevention strategies in the developing countries is essential for control of the neglected zoonoses. The objectives are:
- To secure the commitment of governments and donor bodies to control of neglected zoonoses.
- To ensure effective communication among all stakeholders.
- To promote the activity and acceptance of an international Scientific Advisory Committee for neglected zoonoses.
- To disseminate and improve availability of information on all aspects of the neglected zoonoses covered by this project.